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Large spaces, such as theatres and auditoriums, have a large amount of people centred in a singular space. The challenge is to provide a comfortable environment for the most amount of people. 

Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, a ventilation system can be eventuated to provide a better understanding of the internal environment. 

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Modelling heat loads and outside temperatures conditions an more accurate understanding of heat build up within the spaces can be established. Evaluation through graphical representation can provide an idea of where and how high temperatures reach which could cause discomfort.

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Humidity along with temperature can cause discomfort among occupants within a space. The humidity can be influence by the environmental conditions and internal systems. The levels are humidity can be easily identified through graphical representation. 

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Through the use of a simple 7 stage chart from cold to hot, the calculation can determine what the average thermal comfort criteria of a large set of people could be. This criteria is a effective way to see areas of most discomfort could occur.

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People become to hot or cold at different rates, the percentage dissatisfied criteria is based from the predicted mean vote (PMV) . PPD indicates that 5 % of occupants will still be dissatisfied with the thermal environment.


Every room has a complex balance of providing a comfortable environmental to the occupants. It is not just large commercial spaces or theatres that need to ensure that levels are comfortable, smaller rooms such as meeting rooms and classrooms in schools require the environmental to be comfortable for the majority of people. 

Through detailed analysis of the system, either mechanical or natural means of ventilation, it can be evaluated against criteria to establish if the majority of people will be comfortable as well as highlighting if there are simple ways of improving. With an iterative design philosophy, the performance of the system can be greatly improved. 


With a large number of people concentrated in a room temperatures, humidity and CO2 levels are a major concern to people’s comfort and health.

Through modelling the ventilation system including detailed elements, such as swirl diffuses, the internal environment can be envaulted during the design stage or post completion to ensure a balanced healthy environment for the occupants based on key metrics and algorithms to determine the comfort level based on the 95th percentile of people.


To ensure every heat load is accounted for we also can model people in place around the theatre which generate a heat load. This load is sometimes overlooked, and it is vital that this is considered to ensure a ventilation design is effect at maintaining a comfortable space. 


The environmental conditions within a building can vastly impact the productivity and performance of the occupants as well as causing well being issues with illnesses. 

With detailed analysis of the ventilation systems within the building design, key metrics can be assessed to highlight any issues that may arise. There are many heat sources within an office environment, such as people, computers and other equipment, that require cooling, however the cooling provided may have negative impacts on other areas. With CFD analysis any hot or cold spots can be identified and presented in a simple manor to allow improvements to be made to ensure a comfortable and productive working environment. 

Airflow through an office environment with displacement ventilation modelled


With football and other sports being played around the world in a multitude of different climates, the comfort of the players of the field as well as the spectators in the crowd are being increasing important to ensure a enjoyable and safe environment. 


Find out more about how CFD analysis of stadiums can help identify and mitigate any comfort or compliant issues within stadiums that are located around the world.

Predicted Mean Vote Comfort Index of a section of a stadium


From large scale stadiums and arenas, to small residential rooms, CFD analysis can provide valuable insight into the performance of a ventilation system and the thermal comfort of a space. 

See some of our previous projects to better understand the services we can provide

Percentage Dissatisfied within a space based of thermal comfort CFD analysis

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